Saturday, March 14, 2020

The Berlin Conference to Divide Africa

The Berlin Conference to Divide Africa The Berlin Conference was described by Harm J. de Bli in Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts: The Berlin Conference was Africas undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily. Purpose of the Berlin Conference In 1884, at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germanys sphere of influence over Africa and hoped to force Germanys rivals to struggle with one another for territory. At the time of the conference, 80 percent of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into 50 irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over 1,000 indigenous cultures and regions of Africa. The new countries lacked rhyme or reason and divided coherent groups of people and merged together disparate groups who really did not get along. ThoughtCo / Adrian Mangel Countries Represented at the Berlin Conference Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814 to 1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these 14 nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time. Berlin Conference Tasks The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgiums King Leopold II. Under his rule, over half of the regions population died. At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference, the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the interior of the continent. The conference lasted until February 26, 1885 - a three-month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the indigenous African population. Following the conference, the give and take continued. By 1914, the conference participants had fully divided Africa among themselves into 50 countries. Major colonial holdings included: Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded through their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), and Botswana. The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast).France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa), as well as Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa).Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo).Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west.Italys holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia.Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa).Spain claimed the smallest territory, which was Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni). Source De Bli, Harm J. Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts. Peter O. Muller, Jan Nijman, 16th Edition, Wiley, November 25, 2013.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

American Revolutionary War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

American Revolutionary War - Essay Example With respect to this particular analysis, the author will consider the way in which the group â€Å"The Sons of Liberty† provided just such a catalyst with respect to the events that helped ultimately to lead to through such a unit of analysis, it is the hope of this author that this catalyzing factor will be understood and appreciated to a more full and nuanced degree so that the reader will come to a more complete form of appreciation for the way in which this particular group, as well as many other tangentially related and similar groups within the era, were ultimately the main factors in helping to prompt moderates and firebrands towards a general consensus with respect to exercising the right to self-determination and throwing off the bounds of British colonialism. Through understanding this group and the mechanisms by which it spread and sought to create a newfound colonial identity, the reader can come to a more informed understanding with regards to the way in which th e Sons of Liberty, and groups like it, were absolutely pivotal in determining the course of action that would take place leading up to and including the Revolutionary War period. Firstly, in seeking to understand the Sons of Liberty, it must be understood that this particular group of patriots was ultimately formed as a means of seeking to promote an understanding an integration with the concept of the rights of the colonist. As with many groups, the membership was from a wide array of stakeholders within the society of that time. Individuals who owned large businesses in the growing cities of the colonies along with stakeholders of society that had significantly less in terms of material wealth. This collection of individuals, fervently meeting and discussing aspects of independence and the means through which a further level of rights could be manifest ultimately began to protest the perceived abuses that the British colonials were meting out on them. As a form of this protest, th ese individuals organized street marches as well as planned and engaged in the Boston Tea Party. It is, of course, this Boston Tea Party that the group has become the most famous for in helping to engage the broader population of the colonies in an act of civil disobedience and seek to overthrow the ruling power of the British at that time. The hard-line tactics and level of anxiety and frustration that the Sons of Liberty were able to instill within the individuals they interacted. Naturally, the level of response for these activities was not muted; as the British responded with the Intolerable Acts and cracked down on the ways in which such groups were allowing for a vocal level of societal indignation over the perceived slights that the British government was performing.1 Yet, rather than stymieing their efforts, the success and visibility of the Sons of Liberty only encouraged the formation of further groups throughout the entire nation; spurred on by the rhetoric of liberty and the intense dislike of the way in which the colonies were being administered at that time.2 As a result of the groundswell of sympathy and support that the Sons of Liberty began to receive, they were able to encourage the formation of other revolutionary groups.  

Monday, February 10, 2020

Marketing Master Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Marketing Master - Assignment Example Harley Davidson has powerful brand image and is sound financially, but there are certain palpable weaknesses in its marketing strategy. The target customers are forty plus men; and until Harley Davidson does something about this narrow market, it could well find itself being overrun by Japanese competition. HD has selected the tactical direction to target a younger market that is technologically aware in order to augment its market in the performance cruiser market space. The new V-Rod motorcycle has given Harley Davidson a boost. To target the youth with this latest product line, the company has taken up the following marketing objectives: to develop its existing market (market expansion), branch out its product line (product diversification), and adapt its marketing combine to target a younger audience. During the 1970s, Harley Davidson faced a decline in market owing to high profile, Japanese models. However, it still managed to create a niche for itself in the market. This was done by phasing out feeble models, becoming choosier, through restrictive sales and promotions etc. Today, Harley Davidson is depending on its freshly adopted marketing objectives. ... the following marketing objectives: to develop its existing market (market expansion), branch out its product line (product diversification), and adapt its marketing combine to target a younger audience. During the 1970s, Harley Davidson faced a decline in market owing to high profile, Japanese models. However, it still managed to create a niche for itself in the market. This was done by phasing out feeble models, becoming choosier, through restrictive sales and promotions etc. Today, Harley Davidson is depending on its freshly adopted marketing objectives. First, it needs to place the V-Rod to appeal to people who are buying motorcycles for the first time. Here, its strong brand individuality comes in handy. Second, it has to set a proper marketing mix that appeal to a younger consumer base. It can successfully deploy the low end approach; in other wards attract a young audience through a low price tag. 3. Marketing Mix Elements The Harley-Davidson Corporation has found manifold ways to put its promotion strategy into practice. Harley Davidson's main promotional tool has been the HOG, since 1983. The company's commercials are centred around female images. Over 90% of the bikers are males; the HOG advertising campaign has consequently been thriving for decades. Harley Davidson also uses its cafes, located in most dealerships, for promotion. However, the most important promotional tool is still the brand image of an American product. Owning a Harley stirs nationalistic senses. Harley Davidson's distribution strategy can be best explained through its website. "Harley-Davidson's dealer's are the company's life-line to our customers, with a wide variety of product offerings, dealer's provide knowledge, service, and information to riders out on the road." The

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Frontier Thesis Essay Example for Free

Frontier Thesis Essay US History I Honors Frontier Thesis Jan. 14, 2012 Frontier Thesis Analysis Throughout the early 20th Century, Fredrick Jackson Turner changed many people’s views on evolution by creating his idea of the Frontier Thesis. Throughout his entire thesis he explained that the more west the settlers move, the more distant and individualized they become from their homeland of Europe. After receiving his PhD from Johns Hopkins University and later becoming a professor of history at Wisconsin and Harvard University, he became one of the most intelligent men when it came to history. His encyclopedic knowledge of American history earned him the reputation by 1910 as one of the two or three most influential historians in the country at that time. After completing the US History I class, I can confidently say that I agree with Jackson’s thesis. History has proven that as the years progress so does the evolution of the American people. Not only did people evolve more as they moved west, individuals also established their own religion, government, and education system. Religion was a topic that was extremely strict in Europe; it was their way or no way. As more immigrants came to America looking for a fresh start, they realized they had more freedom to do as they pleased, for example, the Mormons. The Mormons were not accepted by many, therefore forcing them to move around the country and expand westward into the unknown territory. The farther into the new territory they went, the farther away they were from anyone who had any say in what they could do. Even though the Mormon religion was frowned upon by many throughout the country and ended up coming to a halt when their leader Joseph Smith died, it was a prime example of how separating from Europe gave people the option to have more of an expression of how they wanted to live them lives. Moving westward showed that the farther west a group of people who were frowned upon travel, the less people wanted to do with them. Government and security were extremely big parts that made the United States become more of an independent country. The United States refused to let one ruler have all of the power, just like they did in England. To prevent this from happening, the US created a democracy. Being controlled by someone who is across an entire ocean made it extremely hard for them to monitor what was going on and moving west made it nearly impossible for the British to even have an idea of what was going on. Putting more distant in between lead to the realization that moving west gave them the freedom of an entire new life. In today’s day and age, the world in which we live in thrives on education. It is proven that the more education that one has, the farther they are able to go in life. Education gives many people opportunities that they otherwise wouldn’t have. Depending where you live, you often learn things very differently. For example, in New Jersey many people know about the Civil War, but if you travel down south the Civil War is not common. Many refer to the war as the War of Northern Aggression or the War for Southern Independence. The more west you travel into the United States, the more the story of the Civil War might also change. The more west an individual may move, the more distant and uninvolved they will become in what is going on in with the majority. Every region of the United States has their own criteria and curriculum; this proves Tuner’s Frontier Thesis because the more distant and spread out over an area individuals become the more different and individuali zed their lives become. Fredrick Jackson Turner’s Thesis does an extremely good job of explaining why life is the way it is today. The more distant that is between two groups of people, the more likely they are to go down different routes in life. As generations moved farther west they became more American by losing the traditions of their ancestors in Europe and creating their own. The newer generations begin to pick up traditions from others around them and combine them with what they were taught. As the years go on, nothing can stay the same. Things and people change, which is just a part of life. It is hard to  remain in contact with people who are half a world away. People were bound to become more Americanized as they moved west, it was just a matter of time.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Paintballing :: essays research papers

paintballing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Paintballing is a fairly new sport that takes a combination of good equipment, athleticism, and skill. This sport was invented when â€Å" A friend of ours found this gun in a agricultural catolouge that was used by cattlemen to mark cows. It wasn’t long afterwords that we bought two of these things and had ourselves a little duel. After it was over we knew that we had stumbled apon something great† –Hayes Noel. Paintballing is a fairly easy concept to explain, One team essentially hunt the other team. Players are armed with paint filled marble sized balls that when shot, travel at about 60 mph.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  There are many different forms of this game that can be played. There is the most popular game which is single elimination, or if you are hit once (and the paintball breaks), then you must remove yourself from the game. Another game is capture the flag, two armed teams both have flags at an assigned station. You have to capture the other teams flag and bring it to your teams station without getting eliminated. The last game that i will tell you about was also the first game. Two armed players stand back to back, with only one shot, a third person tells the two players to take ten paces and after the players have gone the required distance, they turn and shoot. If one person hits the other, they win.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The euqipment of paintballing is very advanced, in the begining, no saftey gear was required. Now, it is mandatory. Each player MUST wear a mask. The average player will be armed with a gun, a co2 or nitrogen tank, and about 200-400 stored paintballs that are kept in pods. A mid quality semi automatic gun can be purchased for about $100. But prices can range up to $1000.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The question that most people ask when purchasing a gun ask â€Å"What kind of gun do I want? Well, it depends what you want. If you are a new paintballer and want a gun to play around with, then you might look into buying a Wal-Mart pump action gun. If you want a quality gun that will perform in a game, then you want a semi- automatic gun that costs from 100-200 dollars.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Examining Hydrogen Fuel Cells Environmental Sciences Essay

Hydrogen fuel cells are potentially the energy beginning of the hereafter. Due to its efficiency and low pollution H fuel cells are far better than conventional gasoline engines. With increasing gasoline monetary values and pressing environmental issues, a new feasible energy beginning is required such as the H fuel cell, ( Swain, D. 2007 ) . ( 5 ) A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces current by the transition of H and O into H2O, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) The first fuel cell was invented in 1839 by Sir William Grove. Fuel cells operate in a similar mode to a battery nevertheless they will continually bring forth heat and electricity if fuel is supplied, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) Fuel cells run on H. Hydrogen is the most common and simplistic gas. It is exceptionally light and produces the highest sum of energy per unit of weight of 52000 Btu/lb, which is three times that of gasolene, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) A H fuel cell is made up of two electrodes environing an electrolyte. Hydrogen passes over the anode of the cell and the free negatrons are conducted into the external circuit. ( 2 ) The O passes over the cathode. Electrons are conducted back from the external circuit to the accelerator where the H and O recombine to organize H2O. A proton exchange membrane is the electrolyte. If a polymer exchange mem brane is used this must be hydrated to stay stable functionality, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) A Pt accelerator must be used to help the reaction, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) The merchandises formed include H2O, heat and electricity. The two most promising fuel cells are the polymer exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) and the solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) , ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) The PEM fuel cell is used for transit such as in powering vehicles. This fuel cell has a low operating temperature signifier 60 & A ; deg ; C to 80 & A ; deg ; C and a high operating denseness, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) The solid oxide fuel cells operate at really high temperatures of 700-1000 & A ; deg ; C. This cell will be used in big scale power coevals such as in mills, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) One of the primary advantages of the H fuel cells is the low emanations, ( Swain, D. 2007 ) . ( 5 ) Gasoline powered autos emit pollutants such as SO2 and NO. Fuel cells rely on chemical science and non on burning which reduces emanations, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) The lone gas released is H2O vapor. This reduces air pollution and combats planetary heating. ( 6 ) Hydrogen fuel cells are besides really effectual as they have the ability to covert fuel to energy from the minute of coevals. This eradicates multiple stairss and additions efficiency, ( Anonymous,2002 ) . ( 3 ) If pure H is used the H fuel cell can be 65 % efficient, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . If impure H utilized a reformist is required to alter the hydrocarbon into H which lowers the efficiency degree, nevertheless it is still far greater ( up to three times ) than a gasoline engine, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) ( Anonymous,2002 ) . ( 2 ) ( 3 ) Due to the fact that much energy is lost turning pumps and fans in gasoli ne vehicles the overall efficiency is really low of 20 % , ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) In add-on to this H fuel cells achieve the letter writer of 65 stat mis to the gallon doing them a feasible energy beginning, ( Anonymous,2002 ) . ( 3 ) The dependability of a H fuel cell is a major advantage. Whereas burning engines, such as gasoline engines, have many traveling parts that require care, the fuel cell has really few. ( 3 ) This will cut down care costs and increase dependability. In add-on to this a fuel cell will non travel dead ( as batteries do ) if there is a changeless flow of chemicals into the cell, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) Although ab initio production costs would be high for H fuel cells this will diminish and mass production costs will go low because of the simple building of the cell. ( 3 ) Equally good as this the H fuel cell is safe. Unlike gasoline, H will non do environmental jeopardies such as spillages. Similar to petrol H will fire when lit nevertheless it merely becomes explosive when stored up in an enclosed country, which is improbable as H disperses easy, ( Anonymous,2002 ) 3. ( 3 ) This makes H fuel cells a safe option. Hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas and oil. Since these militias are being depleted it is a great adventage that H for the fuel cells can be produced from biomass, sunshine and H2O, ( Swain, D. 2007 ) . ( 5 ) There are many beginnings of H on Earth. Hydrogen is found combined with other elements, chiefly C and O, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) However it can be easy extracted and used to do the ultimate clean and efficient energy beginning, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) Like all fuels and signifiers of energy H fuel cells have their disadvantages. One of the largest disadvantages of H fuel cells is that presently they are really expensive, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 2 ) ( 4 ) Many of the constituents that make up a H fuel cell such as the Pt accelerator and proton exchange membrane are dearly-won, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) This would hold to diminish mostly to be economically feasible. Once this has decreased, for illustration by utilizing an alternate accelerator, mass production costs will diminish, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) The production costs of H besides pose a disadvantage. Most H comes from coal, natural gas and oil. The pollution caused by the production of H from these resources is similar to the sum of that of gasoline engines, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) Hydrogen can be produced by sunshine and air current to power electrolysis which does non make any pollution nevertheless this is excessively expensi ve to use extensively, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) Another job with H fuel cells arise with storage. Due to the fact that H is such a light gas and disperses easy it is really hard to hive away a big sum in a confined country, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) The challenge posed is for applied scientists to fit the 300-mile vehicle scope. However this is non impossible as it has been done in some recent vehicles, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) Research workers are besides coming up with new ways of hive awaying the H such the usage of H armored combat vehicles and metal loanblends, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) For H fuel cells to go feasible a PEMFC membrane must be developed that can run in high temperatures ( 100 & A ; deg ; C ) every bit good as bomber zero temperatures, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) PEMFC membranes are hydrated to reassign H protons nevertheless at temperatures greater than 80 & A ; deg ; C the hydration is lost. These high temperatures are of import as the fuel cell will hold an increased tolerance to drosss. ( 2 ) Fuel cells must stay stable where every bit presently when the vehicle is turned on or off or temperatures are high the membrane tends to degrade, ( Nice, K, Strickland, J. ) . ( 2 ) Further research is required to battle this. In add-on to this exchanging to hydrogen fuel would necessitate an accommodation of substructure where H fuel Stationss, grapevines and distribution channels are required, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) This is possible nevertheless it will take many old ages and money to construct, ( Snyder, A. 2003 ) . ( 4 ) Like all fuels hydrogen fuel cells do hold disadvantages nevertheless many of these can be combated with farther research and over clip, ( Anonymous ) . ( 1 ) Presently hydrogen fuel cells are non a feasible beginning of energy nevertheless due to their low emanations, high efficiency and many other advantages they have the possible to in the hereafter go a feasible energy beginning that is more effectual than gasoline engines.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Feminism And Gender Discrimination On Women Essay

Introduction: Wo(Men) is a play geared to expose the gender discrimination placed on women in society today. Over time, feminism has lost its true meaning to the public, and through my production of Wo(Men), I strive to bring the message of fighting sexism through recognizing intersectionality, and through my production I allow the audience to realize there is imbalance in society after watching gender discriminating scenarios highlighted in the performance. Background on Issue: In the 1960s, feminism rose as a result of social upheaval in the west after WWII. During the war, women left their traditional domestic lifestyles and took up jobs left by men who fought in the war. However, when the soldiers came back, women were encouraged to return back to their original roles, much to their discontent. Along with other social movements in the decade, feminism took hold in that rebellious timeframe and was promoted by women of the middle and working class. Now, feminism has 5 different c ategories: Liberal, Radical, Marxist, Socialist, and Third World. Liberal feminists argue for women’s equality with men in the political, professional, and labor market. Radical feminists adhere to the â€Å"personal is political† idea. Marxist feminists focus on the pursuit of capitalism and how the woman’s role in the household keeps her at a disadvantage on gaining the same material wealth as other members of society. Social feminists argue that women are able to be released from their bondageShow MoreRelatedGender And Environmental Exploitation : Eco Feminism851 Words   |  4 PagesGender and Environmental Exploitation Eco-Feminism is a conceptual idea in a direct response due to Androcentrism a concept that places man as the centric structure and leaves women and the environment under forms of oppression. 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More women were able to get an education, so more minds contributed to discovers and breakthroughs, more people in the workforce, less strain on men to be sole provider 3. Stay at home dads, reversed gender roles II. Questioning 1. Who- Women, men and families 2. What – Feminism 3. When – when did feminism begin 4. How- How did feminism begin 5. Why- Why did feminism begin III. Scratch Outline Introduction- Feminism significantly